Various kinds of organisms, including viruses, bacteria, trematodes and fungi are known carcinogens that cause cancer. Infectious identification related to cancer may lead to better treatment for both the prevention and targeting of cancer therapy. Although nearly 20% of all cancers are caused by an infection of a microbe, the amount of evidence and information regarding the mechanisms associated with oncogenesis varies dramatically from one organism to the next. This review cannot be exhaustive because we are not aware of all infections worldwide in addition to their potential mechanisms for oncogenesis. More research is required for all of the species mentioned in this review.
Various kinds of immunotherapy treatment for cancer are either available to the public or are in the process of clinical trials. Immunotherapy treatments have the potential to treat cancer with significantly less toxicity than chemotherapy and radiation treatments. An emphasis on cellular infusion as a method of either enhancing the immune system by creating an environment for sequestering the host immune system to attack cancer cells or more directly inserting cells to directly attack cancer cells will be provided in this review. Various forms of cancer vaccines are also discussed in this paper as an important aspect in immunotherapy. This review seeks to describe various methodologies associated with administering immunotherapy in the treatment of cancer.
Adoptive immunotherapy, the therapeutic infusion of ex vivo activated cancer-fighting white blood cells that was pioneered by Dr. Steven Rosenberg over 30 years ago, has become more widespread due to outstanding published research documenting the clinical efficacy of this strategy. Based on the well-established in vivo functions of NK and NKT cells, their integral role in the efficacy of certain chemotherapeutic and immunomodulatory agents, and their direct therapeutic action as displayed in clinical trials, the use of autologous natural killer cell infusions is an appropriate and warranted therapeutic option for the treatment of malignant diseases, especially in patients whose disease is refractory to standard treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation.
Complex and late stage cancer patients are in need of novel methods of selecting and administering chemotherapy particularly for those patients who are refractory to current treatment methods. The use of biomarkers to enhance decision making with regard to the molecular profile of a person’s cancer is becoming more important in the practice of oncology. The standard for the last several decades is to elect chemotherapeutic agents based on staging and histological identification of the primary cancer site alone versus utilizing the genetic and molecular profile information along with histological primary cancer site and staging to select chemotherapy regimens. Cancers are caused by mutations that occur within cells and therefore selecting treatment based on mutations and not primary cancer site alone can provide advantages that may have gone overlooked. As time progresses, more biomarkers continue to be discovered which can lead to more targets for drugs either currently on the market or clinical trials. In addition to advancements made in the progression of cancer treatment with utilizing molecular profiles effectively, there are other therapeutic strategies that have been postulated as advanced effective ways to administer chemotherapy. These strategies provide chemotherapy to patients while fasting, giving insulin or other biological response modifiers adjunctively prior to chemotherapy for enhanced targeting, and giving chemotherapy in micro-doses to allow for increased frequency of administration and the utilization of multiple targeted chemotherapeutic agents concurrently. In this paper we will discuss these topics and explain their benefits in addition to the evidence that supports these treatments. A review on biomarkers and cancer cell metabolism is discussed as it relates to providing a framework for what constitutes a biomarker in addition to what metabolic processes are related to fasting and administering insulin with chemotherapy.
Environmental carcinogens are ubiquitous but often avoidable if aware of the inherent dangers. These environmental carcinogens often involve synthetic derivatives of industrial byproducts in addition to solvents, heavy metals, pesticides, radioisotopes, and even carcinogenic microbes. The likelihood of being exposed to carcinogens in one’s lifetime is highly probable, especially with regard to sun exposure or even radon. Although there are far too many carcinogens to either list or explain in one review, this document contains a wide variety of well-known and lesser known carcinogens found in the environment.
Chronic Lyme disease is predicated by an infection with Borrelia burgdorferi via tick vector. B. burgdorferi has been extensively researched with regard to its genome and cell biology. There are many unique characteristics to the bacteria itself; however, serological diagnostics and diagnosis based on symptoms can be complicated and potentially misleading. Other promising diagnostics were also evaluated in this review. Treatment of the chronic Lyme disease can be complicated and at times ineffective. The purpose of this review is to examine B. burgdorferi from a biological and clinical perspective.
There are several factors involved in the ability of Borrelia burgdorferi to retain a persistent infection within a mammalian host. These factors of immune evasion include regulation of membrane proteins, variable epitopes of surface proteins, protection against the immune system through tick saliva, the ability to migrate to regions where it is not exposed to the immune system or antibiotics, invagination or invasion within various cells, pleomorphic forms, and the potential to produce biofilms. The window of conventional treatment for Lyme disease is short and has the potential to display different symptoms depending on the strain of Borrelia bugdorferi. These symptoms are dependent on the localization of Borrelia burgdorferi which correlates to the significance of diagnosing Lyme disease early to prevent such a spread throughout the body. Such complications of Borrelia burgdorferi may demand new clinical treatment discoveries for patient fighting the chronic form.
Curcumin is a naturally occurring phytotherapeutic that has broad uses including the treatment of cancer and as a potent antimicrobial agent. Its dynamic ability to treat very different kinds of disease has spawned a significant increase in inquiry on how curcumin accomplishes these feats. Thousands of peer reviewed papers were published in the past few years regarding the various functions of curcumin. Unlike most pharmaceuticals, curcumin has a multi-range of different targets that it interacts with. Since curcumin’s bioavailabilty is limited, methods of increasing curcumin’s bioavailabilty are discussed. Mechanisms of action regarding curcumin’s ability to effect cancer are discussed including upstream and downstream mechanisms starting with epigenetics to its effect on signal transduction pathways and apoptosis. Curcumin also works adjuvantly with chemotherapy to reduce resistance and enhance the mechanism of certain chemotherapeutic agents. Curcumin’s antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral capability is also discussed with regard to curcumin’s dynamic ability to treat infections. Curcumin use in cancer adjunctive care and its anti-infectious capabilities make it a unique phytotherapeutic agent with promise.
Metronomic dosing of chemotherapy was introduced in the early 2000s and has since gained recognition as a potential game changer in the manner of which chemotherapy can be administered. There are several known candidates for metronomic dosing of chemotherapy with the potential for many more to be elucidated in the future. Minimized overall side effects, longer durations of treatment, potential minimization of multidrug resistance (MDR) mutations, potential less refractory responses, and the potential to safely use more than one chemotherapy treatments also make metronomic dosing of chemotherapy attractive. Metronomic dosing reduces common side effects and has the potential to reduce neutropenia, lymphocytopenia, and cognitive changes associated with maximum tolerated dosages (MTD). Methods of enhancing chemotherapy including fasting and administration of insulin are also discussed. Metronomic dosing combined with a patient’s molecular profile derived from biomarkers is particularly exciting. It holds significant potential with regard to administrating the most relevant chemotherapies and offers maximal beneficial results.
Chronic Lyme disease complex describes the burden carried by patients infected with Borrelia burgdorferi as well as other co-infections or secondary co-infections (opportunistic infections). These infections can cause a significant burden on patients more so than Lyme disease alone. Along with the many underdiagnosed cases of Lyme disease throughout the world exists numerous undiagnosed co-infection and secondary co-infections leading to debilitating symptoms for many patients. The potential for co-infections varies by location as well as to the exposure to various species of ticks. Since there is potential for patients to experience several tick bites including those of different species, additional microorganisms also commonly transmitted via tick bite are included that are typically left out of the conversation of potential Borrelia burgdorferi co-infections. The most common co-infections of Lyme disease include anaplasmosis, babasiosis, bartonellosis and ehrlichiosis. Secondary co-infections or opportunistic infections commonly seen in patients with Lyme disease are also discussed. By helping to establish a comprehensive list of infections associated with Chronic Lyme disease complex may in fact help patients receive a proper diagnosis in order to administer the much needed comprehensive treatments patients deserve.
Ozone therapy has been marred by conventional science for years due to many flawed experimental designs or small sample sizes of the population in which it intends to study. For this reason, many physicians have dismissed ozone therapy and limited funds have been delegated to furthering the knowledge of its therapeutic effects. However, there is evidence that suggests that ozone does have various therapeutic effects that range from disinfection of pathogens, anticancer properties, and treatment of back ailments. In this paper, we have collected the more promising studies that suggest the efficacy and safety of ozone therapy primarily focusing on autohemotherapy. This paper is designed to promote awareness of ozone therapy and to show some supporting evidence of its efficacy. Clinically, ozone therapy is often used adjunctively and combined with other treatment modalities to enhance or encourage a desired mechanism of action. Since the efficacy of ozone alone is still contentious, it is important to note that ozone therapy should be used in conjunction with other various treatments with very few exceptions.
This paper will summarize the data obtained primarily from the last decade of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell immunotherapy. It will do so in a manner that provides an overview needed to set the foundation for perspective on the state of research associated with CAR T cell therapy. The topics covered will include the construction of engineered CAR T cells from the standpoint of the different generations, the mode in which autologous T cells are transfected, the various biomarkers that have been used in CAR T cell immunotherapy, and setbacks associated with engineered T cells. Perspective on priorities of CAR T cell immunotherapy will also be addressed as they are related to safety and efficacy.
Quercetin is a multifaceted dietary flavonoid with a multitude of biologic activities that can be used to treat various ailments. These include cancer, bacterial and viral infections, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. A greater emphasis on cancer is discussed within this paper by highlighting some of the beneficial qualities of quercetin without including other related dietary flavonoids and quercetin analogs. In vitro and in vivo analysis are evaluated without making recommendations on dosage, dosing regiments, or administration since quercetin has not been subjected to rigorous clinical trials despite the significant amount of research that has been conducted with quercetin.